Widget not in any sidebars
This series of agreements has not yet resolved all outstanding issues. The treatment of Japanese residents by the United States continued to cause tensions between the two nations. The Alien Land Act of 1913, for example, prohibited the Japanese from owning or leasing land for more than three years and affected U.S.-Japanese relations in the years leading up to World War I. Economic competition in China, which the United States feared would lead to increased Japanese control, was another issue that exacerbated tensions between the two nations. In 1915, the Japanese launched their “twenty-one demands” to China to ask China to recognize its territorial claims, to prevent other powers from obtaining new concessions along its coasts, and to take a series of measures that should benefit the Japanese economically. China turned to the United States for help and U.S. officials responded with a statement that they would not recognize an agreement threatening the open door. Although consistent with the policy to date, this announcement has done little to benefit the Chinese. However, President Woodrow Wilson was not prepared to take a stronger position because he needed help to protect American interests in Asia, to deal with the escalating conflict in Europe and to deal with racial problems in California. Many Americans argued with the school board that the separation of schools was contrary to the 1894 treaty, which did not explicitly address education, but indicated that the Japanese would obtain equal rights in America. According to the U.S. Supreme Court review decisions (Plessy v.
Ferguson, 1896), a state did not violate the equality clause of the U.S. Constitution by imposing racial segregation as long as the various institutions are essentially equal. Tokyo newspapers have denounced segregation as an insult to Japanese pride and honour. The Japanese government wanted to protect its reputation as a world power. Government officials became aware of the crisis and intervention was needed to maintain diplomatic peace.  Let me first congratulate you on the laborious Thoroness and for the admirable temperament with which you have gone in the case of the treatment of the Japanese on the coast. I had a conversation with the Japanese ambassador before leaving for Panama; read to him what I had to say in my annual message, which he obviously liked very much; and told him that, in my view, the only way to avoid permanent friction between the United States and Japan was to limit as much as possible the movement of citizens from each country to each other to students, travellers, businessmen and others; As no American worker tried to enter Japan, the need was to prevent all immigration of Japanese workers – that is, from the Coolie class – to the United States; that I really hoped that his government would prevent his coolies, all their workers, from coming to either the United States or Hawaii. He was strongly committed to this view and said that he had always opposed Japanese coolies going to America or Hawaii… I hope my message will calm their feelings for the government to tacitly stop all immigration of coolies into our country. Anyway, I will do my best to achieve it. During the first two decades of the 20th century, relations between the United States and Japan were marked by increasing tensions and attempts to reduce the risk of diplomatic conflict.
Each side had territory and interests in Asia, which they feared would threaten the other. U.S. treatment of Japanese immigrants and competition for economic and trade opportunities in China have also exacerbated tensions.